Radio Jackie was one of the most "raided" stations in London, lost a large number of transmitters, and most of it's staff appeared in court and were prosecuted under the Wireless Telegraphy Act 1949.
The owner of the station and the driving force behind it was Nick Catford (DJ Mike Knight). Also well known on site (and to the DTI) was Brian Horne aka Abie Cohen, he was the most inventive when in court and regularly reduced the magistrate to tears of laughter with his unlikely reasons for being in close proximity to an illegal transmitter. On one occasion he explained that he was in the vicinity of Beddington sewerage works to collect daphnia for his OAP neighbours goldfish, the neighbour was duly called as a witness (Brian paid him £10 outside the court). When asked why he had a VSWR meter on the dashboard of his car, he said that it was to tune the engine. Brian was also responsible for setting up the London Transmitter of Independent Radio (LTIR), this broadcast a different station every night of the week on VHF. FM broadcasting was somewhat new to pirates, previously only using AM. Brian became a respectable radio amateur. Mike Knight now works on the recently revived Radio Jackie on 107.8MHz for the Kingston area.
Another key person on site was engineer Mike Barrington, in addition to running his own station Radio Free Atlantis, he was the first person to successfully prosecute the DTI (namely Eric Gotts) for assault. He went on to work for several years as a radio engineer for the offshore Radio Caroline, and most recently is the Chief Engineer of Roughs Tower. Roughs is unique among offshore ex-military forts, in that it lays outside of British territorial waters and is technically an independent island, known as the Principality of Sealand
Key DTI personnel at this time were Jim Crow,Victor Frisby, Eric Gotts, Brian Holder, Brian Williams and Stanley Smith. Jim was known for his leniency in dealing with pirates, and turned a blind eye on many occasions. When he raided the station Swinging Radio England in Shepperton he ignored the glowing valves of the medium wave transmitter and concentrated on a defunct ex-army No.19 Set which he agreed could not transmit. Gotts and Holder in particular were fond of their work and took almost sadistic pleasure in prosecuting pirates. They were so dedicated that they even tracked down pirates on Christmas Day, which was an unofficial amnesty day for pirates in London.
Anyway Gotts started to look bemused, the signal bearing had suddenly changed, when our site went off air, the next one had turned on. He eventually wandered off and we drove to the next site which was now on air, if I recall correctly this was located at Hornsey Rise in Goldie House, a squatted block of flats. These flats had open balconies connecting the front doors, and while we were there a women decided to throw over a washing machine (or fridge I can't remember) at her bloke who was legging it away at ground level. Certainly an eventful night which culminated in Arnold (driving his red open top MG sports car) being hailed down by the police at about 5am, they were parked facing the wrong way and Arnold just put his toe down and we escaped back to our HQ in Quex Road Kilburn.
Skyport Radio had a large audience in the German Democratic Republic ("East Germany" DDR). It is not widely known that outside the transmission hours of Skyport Radio the transmitters were used to broadcast taped programmes from Radio Rastafari International, and Kraut Rock Radio from West Germany.
Staff: Terry Anderson, Bob Earl, Rob Holland, Mark King, Roger Stevens (part-time).
Locations: Feltham, Southall, Hillingdon
Swinging Radio England 254m (1974-77)
Originally started by Roger Stevens, Rob Holland, Bob Earl and Tony Jackson the former staff of Chertsey based Offshore Magazine, it replaced their first venture Sunkhead Radio around 1974. The original transmissions came from Rogers house in Shepperton until it was raided by Jim Crow.
After the Offshore Magazine staff met up with Mark King the station expanded to include Dave Grainger, Allen Reeve, Mike Barrington, Peter Shaw, Kid Grant (Grant Goddard), Bobby Constable (Bill in Southall) and Jim Stockwell, and probably a few more I've forgotten. The station initially broadcast on Sundays from 10am-2pm on 254m before moving to all night Friday transmissions from Midnight-0800 on 227m, the programme schedule was:0000-0200 Bobby Constable, 0200-0400 Jerry King, 0400-0600 Kid Grant, 0600-0800 Pete Shaw. After the station ceased transmissions in 1977 Dave Grainger went on to start Radio Celebration and Allen Reeve started Radio 239, (later Radio City 238).
10W MW VFO 5763 PA
807, EF86, 6L6, ECC83. hybrid solid state PSU
Solid State converted 160m RSGB design 10W Xtal controlled
Harefield House (derelict at the time)
Farm House Chertsey
Crane Park Hanworth
Feltham disused railway marshalling yard
Here are some articles which appeared in the Free Radio
Magazine of the IFRC based in Coldershaw Road around 1972
Radio Nelson Raid
On Sunday the 5th March at 1-20pm the GPO came banging on the Nelson door. Mr. Frisby, Mr. Williams, and Mr. Gotts came dashing up the stairs to a bedroom where the transmitter was (not Asleep) but very much awake and shouting its head off. By the time Gotts made it to the room Libby Caroline had pulled the plugs out and hid some of the cassette tapes. They went through the whole house pulling out drawers and cupboards to see if they could find anything but they didn't and they put everything back as they had found it "neat and tidy".
Both Libby Caroline and Henry Morgan were questioned and they accused Libby of being the brains behind the station, so now she has a big head. Mr. Gotts & Co. said that the transmitter was the best built job they had seen, now Allen Ross has a bigger head, also they mentioned that the location was the cleanest house that they had entered.
With the GPO were 6 police officers; 2 entered the house the remaining 4 stayed outside. The Police were very good and didn't seem to know what they were there for. One Police officer kept on making remarks about the GPO and told Henry to get a van and broadcast from that, and he also said that he would put an aerial on his radio and tune into them every week from now on.
The GPO when asked for a receipt for the stuff taken gave it to Henry without any complaints; the receipt was for everything even the transmitter. The stuff taken was the transmitter, cassette tape recorder, 5 cassette tapes and a mains unit for the recorder, and all letters that the station had received. On the whole the Post Office were very nice to Libby and Henry. The papers kept on ringing up all day but they refused to talk to them.
The Daily Mirror wrote a very big piece on the raid, Nelson is the only pirate of late to get a big write up in this paper. News of the raid also appeared on lTV news that Sunday evening and was heard on the 6 o'clock news on the Beeb, all have big heads now.
After the raid on Nelson was known, other land-based stations offered their TXs to us, for this we thank you all very much. By the time this article goes to print we hope that Nelson will be back on the air again. Richard Johns, Radio Nelson DJ
Clive Barwood Column
In the end I decided to let them take it away to mend it, by using an 807 for the PA. After closer inspection, the RF section was not put together anything like a TX, so I could only think the BIRM engineers don't know what the hell they are doing. Even further inspection of the, TX showed that it wasn't a TX at all. This was very strange as it was so well built; it was very neatly put together.
As I have been in London, Radio 214 hasn't been on. We planned to come on in London, but because of that twerp we couldn't, but we plan to start an alternative station to 214 on about 227 or 230 metres.
Name for the station is not yet decided but I will let you know, in fact it may, be merrily going when you are reading this. We decided not to be pure underground, so disbanded Radio Seth. The new station will run alternative weeks. 214 will be on one week, and the next week the other station will be on. Each station therefore will be on once every two weeks.
While I was in London, I heard some good stations, Radio Samantha, Radio Odyssey, but there doesn't seem to be many like these. Jackie was professional but rather weak, while Samantha was Radio One strength. Needless to say I heard a lot of QSO's. If you must QSO do it on Top Band or anywhere else but don't interfere with the show stations, as this is a bit silly. Anyone would rather hear a good show than someone testing his modulation or cursing Gotts & Co. Anyway sorry not to hear RNI on 270 if and when they do come on it will be really good. So until the next time keep listening.
Clive Barwood, Radio 214
Richard King Column
Firstly about our TX, which was bought from the BIRM for £12, it was supposed to run 20 watts. When we switched it on smoke came pouring out of the back. So some engineers of a large London organization looked it over and found the 5B/254M valve was shorting. Later they found the circuitry so wired that it just wasn't a TX and that it could never have transmitted, the only good thing about it was that all the pieces were there but they just weren't connected up properly. So never buy TX' s from the BIRM as they are completely incompetent and untrustworthy.
Anyway we are now busy putting the "TX" into a new chassis and changing it from crystal controlled to VFO and we may even put it up in output, but for now it will only run about 12 watts. So for about 2 or 3 weeks RFZ will not be on the air, but here is our new schedule: RFZ - Saturdays 235 metres, 11-00am to 12 noon (alternate Saturdays) Sometimes on Sundays on various frequencies for 1 to 3 hours.
Now more news about other stations, as you all know Radio Nelson and Radio Odyssey were, caught but both will come bouncing back, Radio Odyssey came back after only one week off, but only on low power. Also IFRC HQ was raided and they even took material for the FRM (including my column) so I had to re-write this.
Slowly the North London pirates are coming back after hibernating for the winter, but these are the only regular show stations on now Radio Odyssey, Radio Free Atlantis, and a new station Radio Anonymous on 223 metres, every Sunday 1-30pm to 3-30pm. We (RFZ) will also be on by Easter, also a Radio Personality will be on by Easter no more details can be given at present but the owner will probably give you all the details soon. Also the former QSO Station Radio 5-0 is to start transmissions in May under a new name I have heard their TX from where they are now at RNI strength and the quality was as good as VHF. A friend heard them 40 miles away! So listen out for this one as they will play 40% underground and 10% oldies, and I predict they will be big one day.
Also rumours of the HBN (Helen Broadcasting Network) to reform, but you know what rumours are, just like the one about RNI on 270 metres. Now about last months FRM, John Kenway has the best idea yet except for one flaw to be an alternative to Radio One it will have to be at least Radio Luxembourg strength, so imagine how many watts would be needed as Radio Luxembourg run 150 Kilowatts and Monte Carlo run 400 Kilowatts. Also in answer to Keith Jackson, you talk of QSO stations as if they were pests, well OK maybe they are, but when you build a new TX you naturally want to test it and get it working at a peak so that shows will be better quality and as most people are too lazy to write to you a reception report, or even phone the only way is QSO.
Well that's all for this month so keep listening and fighting.
Richard King (Controller/DJ - RFZ)
Whilst there were numerous Free Radio publications available in the seventies, land-based pirate radio rarely got any coverage in the national media. There were some exceptions, my own station Skyport was reported in a typical Daily Heil (Mail) "reds under the bed" article and the following article appeared in Timeout Magazine;
Air On A Shoe String (Timeout 1979)
Radio Jackie celebrates ten years of consistent broadcasting on March 18, specialist music stations appear regularly to cater for minority interests, there is a farseeing experiment in very local community access radio, and political propaganda stations, long a feature of France and Italy, are poised to make a major impact.
Land-based piracy started as soon as the Marine Offences Act 1967, took away the viability of the ships and forts like Radio City, Big L, and Radio 270, transmitting just outside territorial waters. The ships and their owners needed advertising revenue, and when that was denied they all eventually disappeared. Some deejays went on to become national figures on legit radio, as the small fanzines that still circulate to celebrate the brief period endlessly tell you.
Apart from creating demand for what became the commercial and BBC local networks, and totally changing Auntie's national programming, there were other effects. Whilst for some protagonists 'free radio' meant commercial radio, there were those who weren't in it for the money. An echo of this could be seen in the philosophy of the latter-day Radio Caroline with its Loving Awareness messages. (Caroline, just 15 years old this month-it was the first and last-has been off the air since October but claims to be coming back at the far long end of the medium wave band.)
The First Raids
The free radio enthusiasts, not bothered too much about finance, set about learning transmitter construction and studio work and went on the air from the land. There, the full weight of the Wireless Telegraphy Acts and the Post Office Act applies and when the first raids started the operators were peremptorily reminded that unlike other natural resources, the radio frequency spectrum is in the gift of the Crown, to be dispensed with as little openness as a paternalistic Civil Service can manage.
You have to come back to the motivations for getting on the air in the first place to see how stations operate and to understand why some of them survive and others don't.
Politics: In France and Italy there have been hundreds of political pirate stations. The Cuban revolutionary Guevara said: 'The radio is a factor of extraordinary importance ... It explains, teaches, fires, and fixes the future positions of both friends and enemies ... ' Ironically the loudest political station is called Radio Enoch and 80% of its output is right wing extremism. At present it is on short wave. Two other short wave stations, Corsair and Skyport, intersperse left wing material between the music. The phenomenon is new, and what is astonishing is that it did not happen a long time ago. It is obviously only a matter of time before politics appear on medium wave and VHF, where many more will hear it. Approaches to existing music stations have been made by sections of both the National Front and the Communist Party. (This is not true, at least for the CP. no approaches were ever made. Ed.)
The reaction of the authorities to these new developments will be interesting. Legal enforcement is carried out by Post Office engineers acting for the Home Office. The Radio Interference Department has a wide brief which includes malfunctioning industrial equipment, unstable and spurious transmissions, illegal use of the business radio bands, rogue amateurs, and, its most recent preoccupation, the 27Mhz Citizens Band subculture (TO 440). The chief enforcer is Eric Arthur Gotts, the subject of many anecdotes among the pirates. Arising from an incident in January 1977 Jackie took out a private summons for assault. Gotts was found guilty and conditionally discharged, and his appeal against conviction failed. Since then, except when Telstar South set up near Biggin Hill and were pounced upon a few weeks ago by 15 Special Patrol Group vehicles who thought they planned to jam the air traffic band, things have seemed very quiet. At least till March 4 when, in the friendliest way, Gotts descended on AMY. Their loss then was around £170, which will somehow have to be recouped. Unlike other stations they run an associated disco; yet others offer modest facilities for demo discs. But pirate radio is a costly hobby. The heavy expenditure items are the studio, records/tapes, batteries and transformers for power, and admin. The average transmitter costs about £50 serious pirates have three or more at the ready.
Taking precautions is part of the lifestyle (and in some cases one of the attractions, to be truthful). It is believed that the direction finding stations are at Ewell, Sanderstead, Brentford, and possibly East Finchley, and so transmitting sites (usually fields or blocks of flats) are chosen accordingly and changed frequently. The raids and prosecutions seem to work on Buggins' turn. The other main preoccupation is a rich proliferation of pseudonyms, which made this story fun to do, particularly as I was using one too-you see, technically it's an offence even to listen.
Pirate broadcasting is definitely here to stay-there must be nearly 200 transmitters and one can make the following predictions:
I. There will always be sporadic short life stations.
2. Music stations will survive on consistency and audience response otherwise there's no point in going on. It's a pity that, after all the rhetoric, alternative music stations themselves have so little variety. Top 40 from the legits is challenged by a Golden Oldie/ Album/ Request format ... more Invictas are needed.
3. Community Access is splendid, but AMY has to be seen as a demonstration and experiment, prior to legal acceptance.
4. Political stations will multiply. These days 'free radio' means Radio Enoch along with everything else.
How to listen: nearly all pirates transmit in a corridor between 215m(1395khz) and 240m(1250khz), which is relatively under-used in the UK during daytime. (At night atmospheric conditions change and continentals can be heard, which is why pirates don't bother then. The best equipment for listening is a good quality portable, which you can twist around for optimum signal. Medium wave/ AM radios use a ferrite bar as antenna which receives most strongly signals arriving at right angles to its length while nulling out those travelling along its length. Hi-Fi tuners often have inferior AM sections and poor antennae. Remember, a number of stations deliberately restrict their coverage area.
Inventive community access station for six North London boroughs. Good signal in area.
North London Radio or NLR
Popular top-40 type shows, started in January 1978, off the air for a while earlier this year but now back with a strong signal.
Weekend Music Radio
South London-based pop. Off the air at the moment.
Jackie (227m/1332khz 09.00-17.00) Medium Wave/AM
The Radio One of pirates based on Kingston/South London. Busted many times but reliable. Signal weak in North London.
Album/rock format based on American FM style started regularly since March 1977. Off the air at the moment but due back on this new frequency any Sunday now. West/North West London.
New station almost ready to come on. Split off from Celebration. Soft and heavy rock and news items. North West London from May.
London's only semi-permanent live pirate with ultra-informal presentation which appeals to some listeners. Sporadic appearances usually from North London. May move frequently.
Sixties music plus new wave. Started February 1979 as a split from Radio City. From North West.
Pure classic rock'n'roll. Consistent station for the last 18 months with welcome individuality. Signal comes from North/North West.
Autonomous relative of the original AMY, this one will serve East London from April 8. Frequency may change.
How to listen: the pirates tend to look for 'holes' in the coverage provided by legit stations. A good antenna is essential, particularly for stereo, but most Hi-fi tuners are attached to fIxed roof top aerials beamed at Crystal Palace/Croydon, whereas the pirate signals can come from anywhere. The ideal, of course is a rotator (you'll get several extra legit programmes and one extra lTV station with the right setup, so don't knock it). However, in most cases, we're back to the good quality portable, this time using a tiltable and rotatable telescopic whip. Reception will be better high up or near a window and any antenna should be horizontal or slanted to the ground, as this is the 'sense' in which nearly all VHF signals are sent, but experiment and see. Some stations change transmitters during a broadcast. All stations are Sunday only.
Very slick pop/rock with competitions. Highly regarded and consistent, this is the nearest we have to US-FM presentation. All over coverage. Signal usually from the West.
Soul over London. Very professional see feature. Switch transmitters during broadcasts but usually all over coverage beamed from South. Some transmissions stereo.
Radio Free London or RFL
(92 or 92.4,15.00-19.00)
Rock/album orientated. Claims link with original land-based pirate; after several raids, back since February 1978. Signal from North Kent, vertically polarised-may go stereo.
1960-74 golden oldies all requests. Started 1975.Signal comes from the East, and is sometimes Dolby mono. Often difficult to hear in West London.
Holiday station only, since January 1978. Stereo.
Rock station, but weakish signal except in South East London.
Pop/album station. Stereo, but difficult to hear outside its own area.
Intelligent rock station also based in West London. Stereo but sometimes weak. Believed to be temporarily off the air.
There are also further occasionals and holiday specials. Experimental broadcasts have taken place at about 104Mhz but most experienced pirates regard this as risky.
How to listen: the band used is referred to as 48 meters, which is just high of the legitimate 49 m band. The pirates have occupied a corridor between 6.2 and 6.3 Mhz. There are other European pirates in the vicinity, notably Radio Viking. Short wave broadcasts can be heard either within a few miles of the transmitting site, or, by ionospheric reflection, hundreds of miles away. However, their travel is erratic and without powerful transmitters and directional antennae, reception is a gamble and subject to fading. So you'll have to rely on luck, though a 40 foot long wire and a good earth will help. Frequencies listed below are only approximate. Locations given are usually the believed transmitting site, but with short wave that doesn't matter so much. Just tune above 49m at 10.00 on a Sunday, play about with it and see what happens. There are a few stations, which duplicate transmissions on 41 m/7.35Mhz.
Free Radio Broadcasting Co
European Music Radio
Surrey, third Sunday in month-see feature.
London. First, second and fourth Sunday in month.
Solent City Int
(6.235/6.280, from 12.30 on)
North of England. Second and fourth Sundays in month.
South West London. Noisy programmes with lots of Free Radio propaganda. Leftish.
South West London. Close links with Corsair.
South East England.
Sussex accommodation address
West Midlands. Britain's noisiest political pirate right wing extremists, but not NF. Transmissions currently once a month, some of them single sideband and very powerful. May start soon on 4lm and medium wave.
Voice of Britain
Sussex accommodation address. Fairly reliable appearances.
Timeout March 23-29 1979 #466 article by Crispin Aubrey
The following article appeared over several issues of Free Radio Focus and gives an idea of the amount of free radio activity in London at the time. It was written by Ed Hatvany (Dave Grainger) of, amongst others, Radio Celebration.
Landbased London 1968-1977 (Originally published in Free Radio Focus 1978)
It all started with the closure of Radio Caroline in
the spring of 1968. Some months later a Radio Free London
situated in London, and operating on low power, could be
heard test transmitting on the medium wave at about 255metres.
This station was run by people previously well known in
offshore radio. Shortly after this, other stations began
to appear, such as Radio's Helen & Telstar. These would
transmit at odd times on weekday evenings and use various
wavelengths (255m & 197m being popular). As these stations
expanded & improved the operators decided to form a
network, "Helen Broadcasting Net," or H.B.N. as
it became known, with stations such as Helen North, Helen
South (later Helen International)Telstar and another new
station which started early in 1969, Radio Jackie, (formed
from smaller stations like Red Rose.) The HBN broadcast
on Sundays on 197m, with each station having a hour segment.
However, due to various inadequacies the Net' was short
lived and the stations all went their separate ways, Jackie
changed wavelength to 227m. The other stations closed down
one by one. During 1970 numerous other stations started
up including for the first time test transmissions on 88MHz
VHF from Radio Invicta, an all soul music station. During
a typical listening weekend Radio's Pandorra, Free South,
Constellation or Stardust & perhaps Free Caroline could
be heard along with Jackie & Free London.
By the beginning of 1971 a new station Radio Star on 227m was test broadcasting. Also plans for a new VHF station Radio Aquarius were going ahead (94.4 MHz Friday nights) . At this time Jackie was also considering an additional VHF service and tests were made. Eventually the organisers of Jackie & Aquarius got together to form a network called the London Transmitter of Independent Radio (LTIR) whose purpose was to lend out VHF transmitting gear to various stations interested in VHF broadcasting. During 1971 Radio Aquarius could be heard with light music on Friday nights from 10pm to 1am and Radio Jackie broadcast on Saturday nights with specialist programming from 8pm to 1am on 94.4MHz through the facilities of the LTIR.
Towards the end of 1971 Jackie & Aquarius were joined by a new station, Radio London Underground which specialised in progressive music and would broadcast on Sunday evenings, 10pm to 12 midnight. This station became very popular, its' popularity being attributed to their professional programmes. Also Radio Invicta were now broadcasting on 92.4MHz establishing a regular service on weekday evenings between 11.30pm &12.30am. Towards the end of 1971 & at the beginning of '72, the number of smaller stations operating in London increased with the formation of such stations as Jennifer, Thames (also Tower or Marina), Tracy, Samantha, Carol etc. However, operators like Constellation, Free South &Free London had since disappeared some months previously. Some of the larger better known stations were heard for the first time like, Radio Concord & Radio Odyssey both in North London & both very popular. In West London another station started, Radio Nelson, which suffered a spectacular ending in the way of a massive Post Office raid which was headline news at the time......
Here is a typical weeks listening schedule for Summer '72;
Radio Invicta 92.4MHz Mon-Fri.11.30pm-12.30am.
Radio Aquarius 94.4MHz Fri. nights. 10pm-1am.
LTIR Radio Jackie 94.4MHz. Sat. nights. 7pm-1am. (LTIR)
Radio London Underground 94.4MHz. Sunday nights.10pm-12pm. (LTIR)
Medium Wave. Saturdays;
Radio Star 227m 11am-4pm;
Radio Carol & Samantha sometimes after 2pm on 240m. approx'.
Radio Jackie 227m.10am-6pm
Radio Jennifer 260m.3pm-5pm
Radio Concord 230m.12am-4pm
Radio Odyssey 235m.11am-3pm
Radio Nelson 201m.9am- 1pm
Radio Carol & Radio Samantha sometimes after 2pm on 240m approx'.
Radio Tracy sometimes on 222m (Mornings).
Thames Radio (also Tower or Marina) 266m. 4pm-6pm.
On Short Wave at this time Skyport Radio, (so called because of it's proximity to London's Heathrow Airport) was transmitting to Europe on the 41mb changing to 48 metres in early 1973. At the end of 1972, Radio Gemini also started transmissions on short wave from around London. Back to Summer '72 and medium wave, as well as those listed above there were lots of small very sporadic stations on the air, e.g. SBN, (Southern Broadcasting Net'), Radio Valerie etc. Unfortunately after several months of good broadcasts Radio Nelson closed down but West London was soon to hear a new sound, Radio Anonymous on 223m every Sunday from 10.30am to 3.30pm.
However, most of the aforementioned stations did not last long into 1973, including one station which was doomed before it even started, a West London station called Radio Phoenix. Christmas '72 saw the close of Radio London Underground and Radio Odyssey who were now experiencing difficulties with their medium wave station & decided to join the LTIR, these programmes could be heard on Sunday evenings. Radio Star the regular Saturday broadcaster had already become interested in the LTIR and by the end of 1972 they also had programmes going out, this time on Thursday evenings, 10pm-12pm. Radio Invicta had by now switched their weekday service (evenings) to Sunday afternoons from 2pm onwards, this was because of a staff shortage. The people who previously ran Radio Anonymous formed another station, Radio City, but this was only a Bank Holiday broadcaster.
In the spring of 1973 some of the Radio Jackie & Radio Jennifer staff decided to leave to join a new station to London (previously heard in Essex & East London on 186m) called Radio Kaleidoscope, This station broadcast with higher power than most and had very professional programming on 266m from 12am-2pm at first but later from 10am-3pm. However, reception to stations already using that frequency was hampered, e.g. Thames, Tower & Marina, and not much more was heard from these stations again.
Other stations operating around this time, Radios Free Atlantis, Electra, Atlantis & yet another Free Caroline were experiencing staff problems and had since ceased to exist. Radio Invicta had again switched times, this time to Sunday evenings, and later extended this to cover Monday, Tuesday, Thursday & Friday evenings as well. Now due to staff problems Radio Jackie & Jennifer had problems and the Jackie VHF service had to be temporarily suspended, and a new station, Radio Classic took their Saturday evening spot on the LTIR (also the medium wave service closed two hours earlier at 4pm.)
Here's a the summer schedule for a week in typical programme of 1973:-
Medium Wave. Saturdays;
Radio Star 11am-4-pm. 227m.
Radio Jackie 10am-4pm. 227m. ;
Radio Kaleidoscope 10am-3pm. 266m.;
Radio Jennifer 3pm-5pm. 260m. (Irregular due to low staffing.)
Sun-Tues, Thurs & Fri' nights 10pm-11pm Radio Invicta on 92.4MHz.
Radio Star. Thurs nights 9 or 10-12, 94.4MHz.;
Radio Aquarius. Friday nights 10-1am, 94.4MHz.;
R.Classic, Sat' nights 9-12, 94.4MHz. ;
R.Oddysey. Sun' nights 9-11 ,94.4MHz.
(All stations on 94.4MHz are LTIR stations.)
Later on Radio Odyssey left the LTIR never to be heard again, and Radio Classic moved to Sunday nights to make way for the return of Radio Jackie on Saturday nights from 9 till midnight. During the summer of 1973 Radio Star staff decided that they could no longer continue with their VHF service as well as mw, so this was terminated. Radio Kaleidoscope who had meanwhile become quite popular from their regular broadcasts were looking for room to expand, so they joined the LTIR with programming on Thursday evening from 10-12pm. taking Star's place. During this period Radio Jennifer received a series of nasty raids from the post office & had to stop broadcasting regularly (occasional bank holiday broadcasts could still be heard).
Meanwhile Radio Concord were heard from time to time
on Sunday afternoons on 230m, Later, the LTIR decided it
still had room to increase it's programming & they started
advertising for a programme contractor to operate on Wednesday
evenings, and rumours started circulating that Radio Invicta
might join the network. However nothing came of this, or
of Wednesday evening broadcasts from any station. In the
Autumn of 1973 the LTIR operators announced that the network
would shortly close, due to the advent of legal commercial
radio in London, and in October the last LTIR programmes
were heard from Kaleidoscope , Aquarius & Classic. Radio
Jackie stated that they had their own VHF transmitting gear,
and would continue, but nothing much ever came of this.
Some weeks later Radio Star revealed that they had plans
to close as well, and shortly before Christmas their medium
wave service, indeed their station was heard for the last
So this left the medium wave services of Jackie & Kaleidoscope & Radio Invicta who were soon to change to Bank Holiday only programming, Concord & City had since ceased broadcasting to any great extent. But despite all this Christmas '73 brought extremely good broadcasts from Radio Jackie using high power for 48 hours continuously on Christmas & Boxing Days, and Radio Tranquility using high power for three nights during Christmas week, very good programmes like phone-ins etc, presented by ex-offshore djs and also Kaleidoscope staff. Numerous other stations, too numerous to mention were heard as well as Kaleidoscope International on Christmas day.
Spring '74 came with the creation of a new station to broadcast alongside Jackie & Kaleidoscope, formed from various other stations like Radio Carol, London Weekend Radio and Skyport (SW). This was Swinging Radio England (SRE) on 239m from 10am-2pm. This lasted some months, but then after a post office raid & staffing difficulties they had to close never to be heard again. Some weeks after SRE's closure, during the summer of '74, some old familiar names to North London listeners were heard again over the airwaves, this time going under the name of 'Radio Dynamite 235'. They were of course the old Concord staff, Dynamite broadcast on Sundays 10am-4pm and used quite high power (500w at onepoint.Ed'). Also at this time another station opened up, trying out for the first time a high power night time medium wave service called 'Wonderful Free Radio London' (WFRL) on 266m every Thursday & Sunday night from 11pm-1am, tests had been going on for some months. This station proved very popular especially in North London (WFRL's service area) and also well outside London due to extended coverage at night. Radio Dynamite were impressed by this form of broadcasting (although they had tried it before without success) & decided to extend their service into the night with Dynamite NTS (Night time service), commencing at midnight on Saturday through till 10am Sunday when Radio Dynamite would start up from a different location or sometimes the same. However, differing ideas among station staff caused a split in the station between Dynamite NTS & Radio Dynamite, with the result of NTS re-emerging as Radio Concord & Radio Dynamite eventually being forced to close down due to intense post office activity.
In Autumn '74 test transmissions began from a new station, London Music Radio (LMR) on 389m (these tests being in the evenings). LMR was run by people who previously operated City & Anonymous plus a few of the Jackie & Kaleidoscope staff & was closely linked with Radio Invicta, (now a Bank Holiday only operator).
Here's a typical programme guide for Summer '74,
WFRL. Thurs & Suns,11pm-1am.266m.;
R,Concord,Sat/Sun 10pm-10am, 225m.;
Sundays: R,Jackie.227m,10am-4pm (later 2pm,) ï»¿
R. Kaleidoscope.10am-3pm, 266m,
R. Dynamite, 10am-4pm,235m .
Others Linda Anne, Escort, Skyline, Atlantis, 227m. & Big Noise (270) & LMR (389.)
The Autumn of 1976 saw the close of London Music Radio's
VHF service and Radio Jackie transferred their VHF programme
to Friday evenings from 10pm -Midnight, but unfortunately
this did not last very long and by late Autumn the Jackie
VHF service closed announcing that it would return in the
Spring of '77, nothing came of this though. The Medium Wave
service meanwhile had changed broadcast times to 9am-3pm
to allow for bad winter reception conditions after 3pm,but
by Christmas it was extended to 9am-4pm. At the same time,
LMR who were broadcasting alongside Jackie to South West
London decided to change their broadcast area to South East
London and by the end of 1976 had established a regular
service on 222m from 10am-3pm on Sundays.
R. Invicta, Bank Hol's, 10am-6pm Or 8pm, 92.4MHz
Sat LMR tests
During the Summer of 1977 a Radio Sovereign was heard for a few weeks on Sundays on 266m, 1133kHz, the signal to London was weak though as the station operated from well outside the London area. By early Autumn another station, Radio Galaxy was occupying this channel, initially transmissions were irregular but recently they have been on every Sunday with an album format and they have been heard as far away as the Midlands. By this time East London Radio had well established themselves, starting transmissions to East London in the early summer providing a community radio station. Transmissions were initially on 201m, plans to use 235m were made and tests carried out but just before the planned opening on this channel a powerful station called Telstar One turned up with a heavy album format. After some feuding over this channel an agreement was reached and ELR now use 221m. This channel of 1358kHz was left empty after LMR closed down due to internal disputes in late summer 1977. Other stations on less regularly were Radio Elaine on 199m on Bank Holidays and Radio Celebration on 235m, 1277kHz and Back Street Radio a punk station on 226m from North London with a very good signal.By Ed of Radio Celebration
Mark Dezzani gives a a round up of land-based pirate activity towards the end of 1978Short Wave; A new station called Kountryside Radio (Voice of Britain) was heard for the first time on 19/11/78 on 6270kHz from 12.00hrs approx with 20watts. On this occasion it was being relayed via another transmitter although they will have their own transmitter soon and plan to be on every week on another frequency; Programmes consist of Top 40 pop and much interesting radio information. Their address is;c/o 13, The Chase, Crawley, West Sussex, RH10 6HW England. DJs are Rob Roy, Terry St.James and Simon Jay. Another new station called Radio Amy was heard on 19/11/78 on 6270kHz after the above station had closed down at 13.00hrs GMT, a short test of music and ID was given out.
ABC Europe has closed down for good, this follows inevitable hounding by the Home Office because of the very high power that was used by the station. The ABC Europe team are currently trying to get a legal transmitting station sorted out, possibly situated in Northern Italy. Radio Sunshine International will be off the air for 6-8 weeks whilst they undertake the construction of a new studio, they lost the use of their last studio. Meanwhile, DJ Victor Hartman who did the "Chainsaw" programme has been asked to leave the station due to his use of bad language on the air. Radio Zodiac 49 will make it's first 41m transmission on 26/11/78 on or near 7340kHz, this channel will carry a different special test programme than the usual programmes which will be going out on 6275kHz. The schedule for their 2nd and 4th Sunday transmissions have been confirmed and are as follows:
2nd Sundays-10.00 John Dawson Oldies show 11.00 Roger Vosene with "ZO-DX" (Listeners letters, free radio news and music)
12.00 German Show
12.3O French Show
13.00 Roger Anderson
4th Sundays- 10.00 Dave Hunt with Top 10 albums and free radio news
11.00 Stuart Clark with the Punk Show
11.45 Mark Anthony with the Disco Show
12.30 Steve Anderson's Oldie Show:
15.00 "ZO-DX" with Roger Vosene and Dave Hunt:
14.00 Close New QSL cards and stickers are now available from Radio Zodiac 49
Medium Wave and VHF;
Since the last edition of Free Radio Focus land-based
activity in the London area has increased enormously. Radio
Jackie of course is still plugging away every Sunday on
1332kHz from 09.00-17.00 with a Top 40 format despite a
recent court case in which four alleged Jackie staff were
fined £1,200 between them. On 23/11/78, (the day all the
BBC Radio network changed wavelengths) Radio Jackie broadcast
from 06.00 until midnight with 200 Watts and no Home Office
harassment! On the same day a Radio 5 was heard in North
West London on 222m from 10.00-13.00 hrs with 40 Watts.
Programming was of a satirical nature with DJs Paul Lambourghini,
Tony Whitefreeze and their answer to the hairy monster, "TNT".
A station logged regularly from North London since July
is Celebration Radio on 235m 1286kHz from 11.00-16.00 hrs.
Station format is based on album tracks which is proving
a popular alternative to the many top 40 land-based stations
audible in North London. Celebration's transmitter power
is 20w and their mailing address is 14, Hermitage Way, Stanmore,
Other North London stations heard recently are North London Radio on 221m with a pop format and Radio AMY (which stands for Alternative Music for You) on 222m, this station was a breakaway group from NLR and features a lot of local news and top 40 music. A Rock and Roll station Radio City is heard regularly on 239m with very good programming every Sunday afternoon. The heavy rock station Telstar 1 on 1277kHz is now only on the air sporadically after much activity early in the year. A South London station which opened in August, Radio 2.20 seems to have closed down. They put out very good programmes every Sunday from 15.30-16.30. They used an address in Crawley Down. Radio Elaine made their final transmission on 29/10/78 on 186m although reception was limited to a local audience. The transmission was from 18.00-22.00 hrs. Radio Jackie now has a Saturday service on 227m 1332kHz which is based on an album format, this service will probably move to FM in the near future.
Moving to the FM band, activity in the London area has been equally as exciting as Medium Wave. Thameside Radio has been heard with excellent signals every week on 90.2MHz from 19.00-20.00hrs. On 5/11/78 they were raided 20 minutes into the broadcast, although it is not thought that the Home Office were the culprits as they usually stay on the site afterwards, but when the Thameside crew got there no one was around. It is thought that an unknown group of people stole the equipment. Thameside's address is 1, Grosvenor Parade,London W.5. DJs are Bob Edwards and Tony Lloyd.
Radio Telstar South broadcast every Sunday from 19.00-22.00hrs
on 92.8MHz with an entirely oldies type format. Transmitter
power is 200 Watts fed into a circular aerial, mailing address
is in West Wickham, Kent. London's soul station Radio Invicta
is still going strong every Sunday from 12.00-15.00 on 92.4MHz
the station has built up a large following and hosts special
nights in local discos most nights of the week. Mailing
address is 30,Marius Road, London SW17. Radio Free London
broadcasts every Sunday from 16.00-18.00hrs on 92.4 MHz,
their mailing address is 148, George Lane, Lewisham London.
Other FM stations logged in London recently include Uptown
Radio and West London Radio on 94.4MHz. Southcoast Radio
is a new station from the Sussex coast. The first transmission
was heard in October on 222m with good signals and an album
format. Mailing address is Kent Place, Norwell, Newark,
Notts. England. Free Island Radio from the Isle of Wight
or Hampshire coast, has been heard fairly regularly in that
area on Sundays on 222m and has received some attention
in the local press. Free Radio Focus No.18 1978
Thames Radio & Radio BritanniaA brief tale of landbased UK pirate radio 1968-1975
Like most of Britain's youth, I was devastated when the MOA came to pass on 14th August 1967. On that day we lost not only vitality and choice in radio entertainment, but also something much more sinister; freedom of speech in broadcasting.
I was a young radio enthusiast living in South London, and although a member of the local ham radio club, my interests went beyond experimenting on the shortwave bands. My school friends & I were all keen devotees of Radio Caroline, but her increasingly flagging transmissions were not getting the message to Government, and after hearing landbased Radio Free London emulate the former "Big L", we decided to launch our own station.
It wasn't hard to modify ham radio transmitter circuits to the medium wave, and the parts were all readily available from war surplus shops in London's Tottenham Court Road, or simply scrounged from old TV's and radiograms. Before long our shed in suburban Coulsdon became the source of a 15 watt signal playing an eclectic mix of records at strange hours and variable frequencies. With financial help from friends and donations from a local record shop, this evolved into Radio Thames on 220 metres, broadcasting briefly each Sunday using a long wire aerial across the garden. Our first transmission was on 25th August 1968.
Our downfall came in early 1969 when we attempted our first all day transmission while my parents were out. Commencing at 10:00, things were going well until a lookout noted two serious looking men approaching on foot, one with an earpiece. It was pretty obvious that the house with several long haired youths out front was the source of the station, and I nervously answered the front door whilst my pals scattered. Having no knowledge of my "rights" and being quite scared, I obeyed their instructions to cut some of the transmitter wiring and hand over the valves. The next evening the two men returned to discuss my activities with my father, and introduced themselves as GPO Officers Mr Crow and Mr Smith. They commented on the signal being "of quite good quality", and heard as far as Battersea which I was secretly pleased about. They then demanded I hand over the transmitter, but I had foreseen this and had prepared a dummy, which they happily took away. I was never prosecuted and I believe this was because (a) I was still just 17, (b) one of the first stations raided, and (c) they surely didn't follow correct protocols, and any decent lawyer would have got me off.
Of course, to any true pirate operator, being caught and shut down simply makes you more determined to continue, and my group was no different. By good chance, a friend's father was a freelance journalist by profession, and had some mysterious background in wartime radio equipment, as well as a subversive streak. He suggested that we build a more powerful transmitter, and using the (then) new cassette tape technology, pre-record programs and move the transmitter around each Sunday, hopefully delaying being tracked down by the authorities.
As the GPO became better at locating the growing number
of landbased pirates around S.E. England, many other groups
had adopted this operating model, notably Radio Jackie who
eventually became the most famous. Again, like other groups,
we financed our station through daytime jobs and running
discos and used the equipment to record our shows. Each
Sunday we would set up at someone's house and transmit programs
under the new name of Radio Britannia ("Britons never,
never shall be slaves") on 254 m (1183Kz). We also
adopted a middle-of-the-road music format not unlike Radio
355, and carried paid advertising and various appeals for
charities. Often we completed the full 2-3 hour transmission,
but sometimes the familiar faces of Stan Smith and his bully
sidekick, Eric Gotts in a slow passing car forced an early
closure of the station. By 1970 our audience across London, &
Surrey was increasing, but we were running out of locations,
and resorting to hooking into public phone boxes, railway
waiting rooms, and other strange sources for mains power.
Our benefactor then came up with a new solution. Together with my main ally Adrian (aka Stephan West), we purchased several DC-DC converters (and some VERY heavy ex-military batteries!) which although inefficient, ran silently and generated the necessary high voltage to run the 807 PA valves in our 100 watt rig. We now scoured the lovely Surrey countryside for hidden spots not too far from a road (we had to carry the batteries!), string up an invisible and expendable aerial between two tall trees, banged in some earth stakes, and tuned up the rig. Using lookouts with walkie-talkies, we never got close to being raided, and never lost the gear.
In 1972 we reverted to the callsign Thames Radio International (this being more palatable to some parliamentary supporters working behind the scenes on licence applications). Using pre-recorded programs on cassette tapes, we broadcast almost every Sunday (and Xmas which was a GPO accepted amnesty day) until 1973, with semi-regular transmissions and Xmas specials into 1974 and 1975 (with joint transmissions on 49 m shortwave). On medium wave we moved to 260m due to interference on 254m. Our music mix was mainly a "Gold" format with some contemporary pop. I still produced a 30 minute program under the name John Dale, but most programs were supplied by a professional DJ under a pseudonym. We carried no paid advertising, but supported free radio events, charities and advertised our own 'Paintbox' mobile disco*.
After a while, we got smarter and arranged the equipment in the boot of a car and found sites at the ends of country lanes. This meant we no longer had to lug the heavy gear across fields, and could immediately drive away if the GPO arrived, just sacrificing the aerial if found. For those technically minded, the transmitter was crystal controlled with oscillator, buffer, and driver into the PA, which was plate modulated by 4 EL84s series-parallel. We used a standard pi-tank and RF ammeter to tune max power into a long wire aerial. Our transmitter was once loaned to Radio Jackie in the early 70's to keep them going for a couple of weeks.
We used an address in Coulsdon, Surrey for fan mail and requests, and often received reports from places beyond our service area of South London and Surrey, and several European countries especially in winter. The mail always got through, probably because it is (or was) an offence in the UK for anyone to interfere with Her Majesty's Mail.
I sometimes wonder why Radio Britannia is hardly ever mentioned in histories of landbased UK pirates, but I think maybe because our target audience was slightly older than most stations, and our small group didn't mix much or QSO with others, so we were largely unknown in pirate circles. We still have the equipment in my friend's loft in Surrey, although looking at those power hungry valves and heavy batteries and transformers, it's a wonder we didn't consign them to the bin years ago!
Sydney, Australia 2007 * Our Paintbox Disco consisted of a twin deck DJ mixing console, mixer, amplifiers, speakers and lightshow that could be set up anywhere. It was a real money-maker. In 1972 we toured Holland and Denmark, ending up at Scheveningen where we were tempted to join the Caroline ship being secretly prepared for sea. After seeing the condition of the Mi Amigo, we both decided it was not for us, and returned to the UK.
Radio Kathy from the Isle of Wight
In 1974, as a 15 year old boy, I joined an Island pirate radio station called Radio Kathy. It was set up by Nigel Hayles and Graham Dyer and like me, both huge radio enthusiasts. We would try to operate every Sunday but that wasn't always possible. Our start time was midday and we would run for 3 to 4 hours with a mixture of old and new music programming. The transmitter was, of course, home built and the circuit diagram was given to us by Radio Jackie. It was 15 watts in output and used and 807 valve with an anode cap which always turned blue when we on full power. We also used a 6V6 for modulation and one other which I can't remember.
Radio UK International
Left to right it's, John Geoffrey Undy (he was in charge of Radio Interference Dept at Nottingham), Policeman from Alfreton Derbyshire police station, Stan Wright, Ken Chandler (he was second in charge at Nottingham) and Donald Lowe.The station was located at 14 Sleetmoor Lane Somercotes Derbyshire.
"Pirate" Radio in the 1930's
Last updated October 2016,